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Understanding basic neuronal physiology and discovering therapeutics to treat neurological disorders has relied heavily on rodent primary cell cultures and animal models. These common systems have significant drawbacks in terms of biological relevance, reproducibility, and scalability. iCell® GlutaNeurons provide a relevant, excitatory neuronal model that enables researchers to study human neuronal network development and activity through interrogation and manipulation of relevant pathological pathways involved in seizurogenic and neurodegenerative conditions, thereby providing a new and valuable tool for drug discovery, toxicity testing, and basic research.
iCell GlutaNeurons, human glutamatergic-enriched cortical neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, display typical physiological characteristics and form functional neuronal networks amenable to examination across a number of commonly used assay techniques. These cells overcome limitations of existing models by providing the following:
(A) The cells display typical morphology, developing branched networks within 24 hours. (B) Flow cytometry data verify a highly pure, fully differentiated neuronal population. (C) Immunofluorescent labeling identifies the synaptic marker synaptophysin, neuronal marker tuj-1, and nuclei. (D) Single-cell gene expression analysis confirms the high proportion of glutamatergic neurons, which enables the formation of synchronously bursting networks.
(A - D) Upon increased exposure to glutamate, iCell GlutaNeurons exhibit changes in their viability as assessed by, but not limited to, LDH release (CytoTox-ONE assay, Promega), reducing potential (RealTime-Glo assay, Promega), ATP presence (CellTiter-Glo assay, Promega), or membrane integrity (CyQUANT assay, Thermo Fisher Scientific), respectively. (E) Glutamate-induced cell death can be ameliorated by inhibition of NMDA (AP5) and AMPA (DNQX) receptors, as assessed by LDH release, highlighting the utility of iCell GlutaNeurons in screening for neuroprotectants
iCell GlutaNeurons are shipped cryopreserved with optimized media. Simply thaw and use.
iCell GlutaNeurons remain viable and pure in culture for more than 4 weeks, enabling assessment of synapse formation as well as network development and disruption.
The capability to form predominantly excitatory neural networks provide a powerful tool in basic research and drug discovery studies.
Commercial quantities of consistent batches ensure reproducible large-scale screens and long-term projects.
Terminally differentiated from human iPS cells, iCell GlutaNeurons provide a uniquely relevant biological model.