How mature are iCell Cardiomyocytes?

Since maturity is a relatively subjective term dependent upon a variety of characteristics, the developmental classification of iCell® Cardiomyocytes is difficult. These terminally differentiated cells exhibit spontaneous beat activity, which aligns with an immature, neonatal electrophysiological state, but their sarcomeric organization, metabolic profile, cell-cell communication, and MLC2v expression are characteristics that align with more advanced developmental stages. For the sake of simplicity, we tend to classify iCell Cardiomyocytes as post-neonatal. Together these characteristics provide a functional human cardiomyocyte model.

For additional characterization details, refer to the peer-reviewed publications below regarding basic research applications, disease modeling, and toxicity testing.


  1. Ma et al. 2011. High Purity Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Electrophysiological Properties of Action Potentials and Ionic Currents.
  2. Lee et al. 2012. Simultaneous Voltage and Calcium Mapping of Genetically Purified Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell derived Cardiac Myocytes Monolayers.
  3. Puppala et al. 2013. Comparative Gene Expression Profiling in Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiocytes and Human and Cynomolgus Heart Tissue.
  4. Rana et al. 2012. Characterization of Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes: Bioenergetics and Utilization in Safety Screening.